Mary Ann Shadd Cary was a courageous and outspoken 19th-century African- American who used the press and public speaking to fight slavery and oppression in the U.S. and Canada. Part of the small free black elite who used their education and limited freedoms to fight for the end of slavery and racial oppression, Shadd Cary is best known as the first African-American woman to publish and edit a newspaper in North America. But her importance does not stop there. She was an active participant in many of the social and political movements that influenced the 19th century - abolition, black emigration and nationalism, women's rights, and temperance. Emigrating to Canada in the 1850s, she taught the children of fugitive slaves and founded a newspaper, the "Provincial Freeman." During the Civil War, she recruited black troops for the Union Army, and in the midst of Reconstruction she entered law school at middle age to become the second black woman attorney in the nation.