This work is a concise introduction to spectral theory of Hilbert space operators. Its emphasis is on recent aspects of theory and detailed proofs, with the primary goal of offering a modern introductory textbook for a first graduate course in the subject. The coverage of topics is thorough, as the book explores various delicate points and hidden features often left untreated. Spectral Theory of Operators on Hilbert Spaces is addressed to an interdisciplinary audience of graduate students in mathematics, statistics, economics, engineering, and physics. It will also be useful to working mathematicians using spectral theory of Hilbert space operators, as well as for scientists wishing to apply spectral theory to their field.