Resistance to antibacterial agents is increasing at an alarming pace. Materials on management of resistant gram-positive organisms. Expanded discussion and dosing regimens for Polymyxin B and Polymyxin E (Colistin) are included. There is increasing clinical application of continuous, or prolonged, infusion of antibacterials for those drugs where optimal efficacy correlates with time above MIC of the target bacteria. Antiretroviral therapy options continue to expand with the approval of new drugs, such as rilpivirine, and new combination formulations of ARV drugs such as Complera. A newly approved macrolide, fidaxomicin, is included for treatment of moderate to severe C. difficille toxin-mediated diarrhea.