The Biological Basis of Religion and Genius is an extremely concise essay on Kundalini as the mechanism responsible for the evolution of the human race. The awakening of this psycho-physiological mechanism through the techniques of Yoga or other suitable disciplines, the author believes, produces a scientifically measurable biochemical essence that is responsible for the phenomena of genius, creativity, inspiration, the religious impulse and revelation. The main part of this book is the text of a speech Gopi Krishna presented at a meeting of scientists in Florence, Italy, October 23, 1970. It was first published in booklet form in 1971 with the cover-heading An Appeal to World Leaders, Scientists and Scholars. Shortly thereafter, Harper and Row published The Biological Basis of Religion and Genius as part of their Religious Perspectives series containing the internationally respected astrophysicist Dr. Carl Friedrich Freiherr von Weizsacker s lengthy introduction. This work has effectively remained out of print in North America and Europe for more than three decades. The original Appeal... was made to the scientific, religious and scholarly communities to work together not only to ensure our survival but also to apprise them of the next step in the evolution of human consciousness and, hopefully, ensure its healthy outcome. Based on his own experience and the testimony provided by the doctrines of the various world religious and esoteric traditions, Gopi Krishna asserted that ...either as the result of appropriate disciplines or as a natural endowment, the activity of the reproductive system is reversible and that high grade genius and every form of genuine mystical ecstasy result from the impact of this highly concentrated vital energy on the brain. Given the hold that science and technology have on modern life, Gopi Krishna realized the importance of putting his ideas to the test in the crucible of empirical science. He felt that the empirical observation of the Kundalini mechanism ...would effect a radical change in some current concepts about life and narrow the gulf existing between religion and science. It would also draw the attention of scholars towards the spiritual laws of evolution of which they have no knowledge at present. So why reprint this book now? It is clear that there has been a leap in our technological skills, our knowledge of the physical world and the advancement in the amenities available for our standard of living. It is also clear that our secular ethics have not kept pace with these advancements, thus contributing to the world conditions we now face. In order to secure our future, humanity as a whole must become aware of the Law of Evolution. Kundalini is the key to understanding and, for the satisfaction of the empirically minded, the key to verifying this Law. The concept of Kundalini brings with it a time-tested structure that current technology should be able to examine. This was certainly not the case centuries or even a few decades ago. This point is amplified by recent scientific discoveries of how the brain functions. In the U.S.A., the last decade of the 20th century was designated as the Decade of the Brain. During this period, neuroscience made significant discoveries in the areas of genetics, brain plasticity and development, imaging technologies, cell death and molecular neuro-pharmacology. Investigation of the concept of Kundalini as a universal mechanism that has a somatic basis provides humanity with a peaceful way out of our current dilemma. As Gopi Krishna said over 35 years ago, the world stands in dire need of a speedy breakthrough in the science of the spirit. It is thus time for a concerted and sophisticated research probe into the nature and composition of bio-energy.