This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can usually download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1842 edition. Excerpt: ...Barbadense, D.) History.--Herodotus' mentions the petroleum springs of Zacvothus (now called Zante) more than 400 years before Christ. Plutarch, in his Life of Alexander, speaks of a lake of naphtha at Ecbatana (now Hamedan), in Media. The substance known to mineralogists as petroleum is the black naphtha (vapOa fiiXaiva) of Dioscorides (lib. i.), the bitumen liqttidum of Pliny (lib. xxxv.) Natural History.--There are two varieties of liquid bitumen « mineral oil: one is transparent and nearly colourless, or only sligbth yellow, and when burnt leaves no residuum; the other is thick, of l reddish brown colour or blackish, and leaves, after combustion, i black coal. The first is called naphtha (a Chaldsean word); tin second petroleum (from petra, a rock; and oleum, oil) or rock oil, be cause it is frequently found exuding in the form of an oily liquid (iron rocks. Both kinds are supposed to be produced by the decomptf sition of organic (vegetable) matter, for they are always found ii Neptunian rocks, and they appear sometimes to be one of the pro ducts of the decomposition of coalu. From the investigation of Drs Christison and Gregory", it appears probable that some varieties of petroleum, as that of Rangoon, are products of destructive distilU tion, since they contain paraffine and eupion, substances obtainw from organic bodies by heat. Petroleum is found in this country at Ormskirk in Lancashire, ii Colebrook Dale, and at St. Catherine's Well, near Edinburgh In France it is produced at the village of Gabian in Languedoc and hence it was termed Oleum Gabianum. It is also found in various other parts of Europe, especially in Italy. In the United States of America it is met with in various places: that from the shore of Seneka Lake...