This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1854 edition. Excerpt: ...the scantling and arrange the butts of the frame, or the number of timbers composing the frame of a ship or other vessel, upon the floor of the loft. The dead-flat frame being the one usually selected for this purpose, a batten being bent to the shape of the frame, and the size of the scantling set off toward the centre at the head of the frame, and likewise the size at the side of the keel, a batten is then bent with those boundaries at the head and keel, the intermediate space being determined by the builder. But we apprehend this to be a loose and indefinite mode of determining the size of the frame--by the scantling size we mean the moulding size of the frame from the keel to the head of the frames. The dimensions at the keel, or the depth on the keel, should in all cases be something more than the siding of the keel. In steamships the difference should be greater than in sailing ships, on account of the application of power in opposite directions; that is to say, if the keel of a steamship were sided 18 inches, the depth of the floors should not be less than 20 inches; whereas the keel of a sailing ship, requiring a siding size of 16 inches, should have a depth of 17 to 17 inches in the throats of the floors, or the depth on the top of the keel. These proportions will apply to smaller vessels, and may be considered sufficiently heavy, unless the vessel be a centre-board vessel, in which case the proportion will not apply. Where light draught of water is of great consequence in smaller vessels than ships and brigs, we may perhaps be quite safe in reducing the size somewhat below the proportion given. There is still another exception to this general rule when we determine to cover the vessel with plank of more than usual thickness. We may in...