This ringbound book provides a reproduction of important documents from the Department of Justice and U.S. Military about conducted energy devices (CEDs) and Taser weapons: Review of the Department of Justice's Use of Less-Lethal Weapons, 2009, Office of the Inspector General, Evaluation and Inspections Division; Study of Deaths Following Electro Muscular Disruption, National Institute of Justice; Taser Weapons: Use of Tasers by Selected Law Enforcement Agencies; and Evaluation of the Electrical Properties and Bio-Behavioral Effects of Four Commercially Available Tasers. Use of these weapons can enhance the safety of law enforcement officers and the public during law enforcement operations. However, while less-lethal weapons are less likely to cause serious injury or death than firearms, significant injuries and fatalities can result from their use. The Taser delivers an electric charge intended to cause temporary loss of muscle control. ATF began providing Tasers to its Special Agents in January 2006 after completing a year of pilot testing. In April 2006, the USMS approved the use of Tasers by Deputy Marshals. Although the term Taser is commonly used to refer to all types of conducted energy devices, Tasers are specific weapons made by Taser International Inc. Taser International is the market leader in conducted energy devices and sells several models to law enforcement agencies and individuals for personal use. Stinger Systems is another manufacturer of conducted energy devices. During the three years from 2003 through 2005, 47 states and the District of Columbia reported 1,095 arrest related deaths proximal to law enforcement s use of force. For many years police leaders have sought alternatives to lethal force and better methods to subdue individuals to limit injuries and death. Less lethal technologies have been used in law enforcement for this purpose extensively since the early 1990s. In recent years, electro muscular disruption (EMD) technology, also known as conducted energy devices (CEDs), have become the less lethal weapon of choice for a growing number of law enforcement agencies. CED uses a high voltage, low power charge of electricity to induce involuntary muscle contractions that cause temporary incapacitation. The Taser fires two metal barbs that are attached to wires, which can cover a distance of up to 25 feet. Once the barbs are embedded in an individual or on the individual s clothing, the weapon delivers an electrical charge of 50,000 volts through the wires to the barbs. This charge causes the muscles of the individual to involuntarily contract, which immediately incapacitates the individual for the duration of the shock, usually lasting about 5 seconds.The barbs need not be embedded in an individual s body in order to function. Because of the high voltage, an individual will be shocked even if the barbs are attached to an outer layer of clothing, such as a coat. If the barbs penetrate the skin, it is impossible to predict how deeply they will embed because of various factors, including wind speed and a subject s weight and muscle mass.