This study provides an analysis of several cases of high-technology trade conflict between the United States, Japan and Europe with the objective of drawing policy lessons for the United States. Three questions are posed: what kinds of multilateral rules are required to reduce trade friction in high-technology industries?; what kinds of trade policies should the United States pursue in support of its own high-technology producers?; what kinds of new domestic initiatives are necessary to realize this goal? Tyson proposes a "cautious activist" policy agenda to maintain American competitiveness in high-technology industries.