Wars, especially civil wars, are known to be one of the most potent causes of human suffering and underdevelopment. Yet economic analysis of developing countries at war is relatively rare. These volumes aim to reverse this neglect, tracing the economic and social consequences of conflict in poor countries. A major objective is to identify policies which may reduce the heavy human and economic costs. Volume One provides a general framework for understanding the economic interactions. It also provides an empirical overview of the costs of war for the worst affected countries in the 1970s and 1980s. Volume Two presents seven country case studies.