This volume deals with the dynamics of science-based innovation. The transfer of the latest scientific results to commercial innovation is of ever more importance today. This implies that competitiveness in modern technologies is no more the responsibility of the manufacturing industry alone, but involves a mutual dependence with the largely publicfinanced science institutions. The volume displays the state of the art in this interesting emerging research field between (economic) innovation research and the sociology of science. It is organized in three main parts. Advanced methodologies (patent analysis, bibliometrics, cluster analysis and cognitive cartography) are introduced in part I, whereas part II presents selected trends in the national structures of science and innovation. Here, two quite differing countries are highlighted: Japan and the former German Democratic Republic. Part III includes technology casestudies of science-based innovation in molecular beam epitaxy, laser medicine, polyimide plastics, fuel cells and factory automation. The eleven authors from various European countries and Japan arrive at conclusions and recommendations both for (public) science and innovation policy and industrial technology management.