As the rest of the world worries about what a future might look like under Chinese supremacy, Edward Luttwak worries about Chinaâ€™s own future prospects. Applying the logic of strategy for which he is well known, Luttwak argues that the most populous nation on Earthâ€”and its second largest economyâ€”may be headed for a fall. For any country whose rising strength cannot go unnoticed, the universal logic of strategy allows only military or economic growth. But China is pursuing both goals simultaneously. Its military buildup and assertive foreign policy have already stirred up resistance among its neighbors, just three of whomâ€”India, Japan, and Vietnamâ€”together exceed China in population and wealth. Unless Chinaâ€™s leaders check their own ambitions, a host of countries, which are already forming tacit military coalitions, will start to impose economic restrictions as well. Chinese leaders will find it difficult to choose between pursuing economic prosperity and increasing Chinaâ€™s military strength. Such a change would be hard to explain to public opinion. Moreover, Chinese leaders would have to end their reliance on ancient strategic texts such as Sun Tzuâ€™s Art of War. While these guides might have helped in diplomatic and military conflicts within China itself, their tacticsâ€”such as deliberately provoking crises to force negotiationsâ€”turned Chinaâ€™s neighbors into foes. To avoid arousing the worldâ€™s enmity further, Luttwak advises, Chinese leaders would be wise to pursue a more sustainable course of economic growth combined with increasing military and diplomatic restraint.