The tariff, central to the colonies' separation from Great Britain, has remained one of the most divisive and misunderstood issues in American history. This encyclopedia provides comprehensive coverage of tariffs and trade from pre-colonial times to the present, featuring more than 400 A-Z entries, selected primary documents, and texts of the tariffs. It overviews the people, events, and legislation that have affected tariffs and trade policy, while illustrating the issues with primary documents from the Federalist Papers to the Gore-Perot debate over NAFTA.Designed as a tool for students, scholars, and the general public, this book is the only encyclopedia on tariffs and trade from the 1600s to the present. The book's introduction offers a solid historical survey, while entries include overviews of each tariff from 1789 to the present, concise biographies of individuals—including both opponents of tariffs and advocates of protectionism—and coverage of the events that have shaped economic and trade policies. The encyclopedia's extensive information provides a broader, fuller understanding of tariffs, their role in U.S. history, and their impact on trade than any other reference.