This book guides researchers in performing and presenting high-quality analyses of all kinds of non-randomized studies, including analyses of observational studies, claims database analyses, assessment of registry data, survey data, pharmaco-economic data, and many more applications. The text is sufficiently detailed to provide not only general guidance, but to help the researcher through all of the standard issues that arise in such analyses. Just enough theory is included to allow the reader to understand the pros and cons of alternative approaches and when to use each method. The numerous contributors to this book illustrate, via real-world numerical examples and SAS code, appropriate implementations of alternative methods. The end result is that researchers will learn how to present high-quality and transparent analyses that will lead to fair and objective decisions from observational data.