This volume is based on the proceedings of a conference held at the Science Centre Berlin in September 1986. It was designed to bring together economists from Europe, Japan and North America to present new research to the OECD-wide debate on high and persistent unemployment rates and related employment problems. Relationships between employment and unemployment on one hand and labour utilization and work intensity on the other are discussed. The latter two variables include standard working hours, overtime working, part-time working and flexible staffing arrangements. A recurring emphasis is placed on the role of labour costs in employment/labour utilization decisions while an another theme is the influence of job security policies. The work also allows for some comparison between Europe and North America, as for example the relationship between employment and hours of work. It aims to provide a wide range of international comparative empirical results which may help labour market economists in establishing general methodology and common research ground.