This volume records the proceedings of the ninth Fulbright Colloquium held at the University of Keele in September 1989. This conference attracted contributors from Canada, Australia and Europe, as well as from the United States and Britain. Practical case studies illuminated matters of general principle and the comparisons of legal practices and procedures in North America and Europe exposed parallels and divergences that were of particular significance and interest. The increasing use of litigation in cases involving pharmaceutical products has become a barrier to innovation and development in both Britain and America and both countries have much to learn from each other in this field. In contrasting the differing practices on each side of the Atlantic, participants in the Colloquium identified areas where changes could be introduced to advantage.