Rutger Hoekstra examines the complex relationship between the monetary economy and the materials flows that are extracted and emitted by economic activities. These physical flows are responsible for many important environmental problems such as unsustainable resource depletion, waste production and climate change. This book discusses, applies and improves upon techniques which link the monetary and physical economies for environmental analyses. The book uses two sources of analysis: the physical input-output table (PIOT), a macro-economic account for the physical economy, recording material and product flows, including resource extraction, emissions and recycling; and structural decomposition analysis (SDA), which assesses the influence of structural changes, such as economic growth, consumption shifts, export growth and technological change, on environmental indicators. Methodological improvements in the PIOT and SDA systems are then presented by the author, and applied to empirical data. Ecological and industrial economists, along with those with an interest in environmental problems associated with the economy will find this book, with its extensive historical analysis and novel fore- and back-casting models, to be a fascinating read.