This textbook reader discusses the importance of organization and reorganization in the contemporary structure of the American federal government. First, it deals with the decision to change structural arrangements within the bureaucracy. Through a range of conceptual readings, it explores why reorganization and changing the structure of government continues to happen, allowing the reader to understand the multiple and often conflicting goals involved in changing organizational structure. It highlights two contrasting approaches to reorganization: a management approach and a policy approach. Secondly, it discusses the consequences of reorganization activity by focusing on the results of a number of federal government reorganizations. The examples include the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, the U.S. Department of Defense, the U.S. Department of Education, and proposals to establish a U.S. Department of Food Safety. This is an idea text for courses in public management, public policy, and political science courses covering the Presidency and Congress.