The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe have moved away from a centrally planned economy toward integration within the global economy. How did this transition begin? Is this an aim that all of the countries can afford? What conditions are to be met so that the countries will achieve a level of development comparable with the average level of their industrial partners? In this volume, leading political economists from the East and West provide an in-depth analysis of these questions. They examine the part that will be played by foreign aid, the need for the domestic reform of foreign trade, and how change is dependent on the overall democratization and liberalization of these countries.