AmÃlcar Cabral, born in 1921 in Guinea-Bissau, had his early education in Guinea and did his university studies in Portugal. Cabral found himself active in the nationalist struggle, a political context that enabled him to reflect on several aspects of the armed struggle. He developed his understanding and theories of the national liberation struggle in the political context of militant nationalism; he fought as he wrote incisively about that struggle, and passionately struggled as he wrote. This dialectical experience enriched his theoretical understanding of the aims, goals, strategies and ideologies that informed the nature of political involvement in the movement for national liberation. This new edition of Cabral's work includes a chapter on 'Return to the Source' that emphasises culture as a form of struggle. Cabral's work remains one of the most influential texts written on the imperatives of rethinking the political, economic and cultural debates on identity, nationality, and the discourses of Africanisation. This second edition comes at a time when Cabral's work is being re-evaluated across disciplines such as sociology, history, literature, and cultural studies.