This account of the rise and fall of civilization in the Nile Valley is the first detailed, reign-by-reign history of ancient Egypt to be published in English since Sir Alan Gardiner's Egypt of the Pharaohs (1961). Nicolas Grimal's description of the political and economic history of the Egyptians is recounted within the framework of an intricate and well-argued chronology. At a time when the vast accumulation of information from ancient Egypt is becoming almost too diverse for a single author to encompass, Grimal successfully transforms the raw archaeological sources into a coherent historical sequence. From the first human settlement in the Nile Valley (c. 120,000 BC) to the appearance of Alexander the Great (c. 331 BC), this history blends archaeological and textual evidence into a lucid and informed narrative. Numerous quotes from the original documentary sources, such as the funerary autobiographies of individuals and the official royal accounts of military campaigns, add a strong sense of atmosphere to the unfolding events. A full and up-to-date bibliography allows readers to pursue particular topics in greater depth where necessary.