Brunei has long been associated with massive oil resources and the stability that its wealth can guarantee. But little is known of the revolt of 1962 which might have changed the fortunes of the sultanate and the fate of South East Asia. This is the first comprehensive history of the Brunei Rebellion, the trigger for the Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation of the 60s and of critical importance in understanding the history of the region. The revolt of 1962 was a small armed uprising in support of a Borneo Federation consisting of Brunei, Sarawak and North Borneo. It opposed the Malaysian Federation, seen as a buttress of British and Western imperial interest. In a period of great tension between the West and the Communist world, China viewed the rebellion as a national liberation war and it was quickly suppressed by the British Emergency Force. But although the rebellion itself was short-lived, the consequences for the region's international relations within Asia and with the West - especially given Brunei's emergence as a significant oil-producer - were far-reaching.