In this work, the author has condensed over 4000 years of continuity and development into a single digestable volume. It discusses modern India's rapidly growing population and even more rapidly expanding industry and economy within the context of the country's past, as well as considering the prospects for India's future. Throughout, Wolpert strives to record history fairly and truthfully, portraying with clarity and intensity both the brightest achievements of Indian civilization, and the darkest depths of its persistent socio-sexual inequities, and economic and political corruption. This edition has been revised and updated with a new preface and a new final chapter reflecting the significant social, political and economic issues which have occurred since 1997. This work is intended for students of Indian history.