This book represents a sociologist's understanding of the development of industrial research in India. It begins with a historical reconstruction of industrial research, sketching out developments from the establishment of the Asiatic Society of Bengal to the inauguration of the National Physical Laboratory at Delhi. The second half of the book focuses on the National Physical Laboratory. The book then analyses how scientists have struggled with the categories of scientific and technological research to unravel the nature of the industrial research laboratory as an institution distinct from the university and the conventional factory. The present work has grown out of a doctoral dissertation completed by Dr. Visvanathan from the Delhi School Of Economics. The author is currently Convener, Committee for Cultural Choices and Global Futures, Delhi.