This account of the history of the Arabs, from pre-Islamic times to the present day, considers Arabic culture, society and politics, as well as the place of the Arabs in human history. In this new edition of an established work, Professor Lewis examines the key issues of Arab development - their identity, the national revival which cemented the creation of the Islamic state, and the social and economic pressures that destroyed the Arab kingdom and created the Islamic empire. Similarly, he analyzes the forces which contributed to that empire's eventual decline: political break-up, economic decay and extravagance, invasions and the impact of the West. For, Lewis argues, Western inventions have shattered the traditional economic structure, and demand a social, political and cultural readjustment that is still to be made. Bernard Lewis has also written "The Emergence of Modern Turkey" and "The Muslim Discovery of Europe".