Most people have heard of Lady Godiva and her horseback tax protest in the 11th century and Joan of Arc who in the 15th century fought against the English for the French gaining sainthood in 1920. Many know of Eleanor of Aquataine, 12th century Queen of France and England, and powerful manipulator and protector of kings. Some know of Hildegarde and Beatrice and Blanche and Clare. There are many famous women of the Middle Ages whose lives and leadership brought important changes to history. This encyclopedia contains several hundred entries on the culture, history and circumstances of women in the Middle Ages, from the years 500 to 1500 C.E. The geographical scope of this work is wide, with entries on women from England, France, Germany, Japan, and other nations around the world. There are entries on queens, empresses, and other women in positions of leadership as well as entries on topics such as work, marriage and family, households, employment, religion, and various other aspects of women's lives in the Middle Ages. Genealogies of queens and empresses accompany the text in an appendix.