This digital document is an article from Encyclopedia of the American Constitution, brought to you by Gale®, a part of Cengage Learning, a world leader in e-research and educational publishing for libraries, schools and businesses. The length of the article is 1650 words. The article is delivered in HTML format and is available in your Amazon.com Digital Locker immediately after purchase. You can view it with any web browser. This edition of the 1987 Dartmouth Medal-winner includes all of the material from the original four-volume set and 1992 Supplement, as well as updated original articles and new articles covering concepts and court cases since 1992.