This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1901 Excerpt: ...that both are large and the 2d is particularly elongated. The spread of the transverse processes increases to the 3d. The body, arch, and transverse processes of the 3d lumbar at first appear perfectly normal, but the lower part of the vertebra is in front continued down, as a smooth mass of bone, to the sacrum, which it joins. From the back of the lower part of this mass are seen projecting on each side two rudimentary transverse processes. There is a roughness on the bone on the left, extending to the front from the origin of these two processes. On the right there is a smaller roughness, confined to the side opposite the 4th transverse process. There is but a vague hint of any interruption of the bone between the last lumbar and the sacrum, ever having existed. The arch and processes of the 3d lumbar are well developed, but it fuses below with the ill-developed parts of the 4th and 5th lumbars. The spine of the last is little larger than the tubercle which represents it on a normal 1st sacral vertebra. Indeed, it is only by some care that the arch of the last lumbar can be recognized, so completely is it fused with the sacrum. Of the latter there is little to say, except that the 1st coccygeal, distinct from the following ones, is fused with it. Here, then, is a case of the want of development of the last two praesacrals, accompanied by their fusion with the adjacent elements above and below. What seems to me an effort, and a very successful effort, at compensation, is the fact that the change of the 12th thoracic to a lumbar vertebra for all practical purposes and the lengthening of the body of the 2d lumbar make a very respectable lumbar region, in spite of the rudimentary condition of two vertebrae, and of the loss of several discs. Group B. 24. Cat. ...