Hypoxia remains a constant threat throughout life. It is for this reason that the International Hypoxia Society strives to maintain a near quarter century tradition of presenting a stimulating blend of clinical and basic science discussions. International experts from many fields have focused on the state-of-the-art discoveries in normal and pathophysiological responses to hypoxia. Topics in this volume include gene-environment interactions, a theme developed in both a clinical context regarding exercise and hypoxia, as well as in native populations living in high altitudes. Furthermore, experts in the field have combined topics such as skeletal muscle angiogenesis and hypoxia, high altitude pulmonary edema, new insights into the biology of the erythropoietin receptor, and the latest advances in cardiorespiratory control in hypoxia. This volume explores the fields of anatomy, cardiology, biological transport, and biomedical engineering among many others.