Many urban planners and managers erroneously assume that pest-borne diseases are relics of the past. Since the mid-20th century, however, major changes in ecology, climate and human behavior have favored the proliferation of urban pests. Alarmingly, the dramatic rise in urban sprawl has led to city suburbs becoming the natural habitat of ticks, rodents and other pests.These changes make timely a new analysis of the effects of present-day urban pests on health. To this end, WHO invited international experts in various pest-related fields to identify the public health risk posed by various pests and to suggest appropriate prevention and control measures. This book presents their conclusions and formulates policy options for all levels of decision-making on the future management of pests and pest-related diseases.