The ancient practice of adoption has changed significantly through history. In colonial America, parents adopted out their unwanted children—those who were "rude, stubborn, and unruly"—to other families. Today, Americans go abroad looking for children to adopt, and have adopted more than a quarter million internationally.Adoption: A Reference Handbook, Second Edition not only traces the development of expert thinking about adoption, it also looks at both sides of the latest controversial issues. Should adoptions be open or closed? Should the government regulate adoptions more closely—or less? This updated second edition offers an international perspective with a new chapter on how countries outside the United States provide adoption services. This work is an indispensable resource for those thinking about adoption or researching its history.