Since the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1997, the negotiation of policy responses to climate change has become an area of major research. This authoritative volume sets out the main debates and processes of joint implementation - bilateral or multilateral investments in greenhouse gas emission reduction or sequestration - and explores the issues involved in constructing an appropriate institutional framework. It examines the key economic, environmental, social and ethical impacts, and assesses the operational design of the flexibility mechanisms of joint implementation, including emissions trading and the Clean Development Mechanism. An approach is developed in which streamlined assessment procedures are combined with institutional safeguards in order to balance the demand for practical mechanisms with the environmental objectives of the Protocol. The book provides detailed case studies of energy sector investment in Eastern European host countries.