Giving early years practitioners and students the confidence to effectively support scientific exploration and investigation with young children, this book explains the science behind young children's knowledge and understanding of the world. Linking theory to practice and the Early Years Foundation Stage, the emphasis throughout the book is on recognizing young children as competent, creative thinkers, and building on their ideas. The book is packed with critical questions and opportunities for reflection, to encourage the reader to think carefully about the role of the adult in supporting child-initiated learning and discovery. The authors look at all the key areas of scientific knowledge, and provide practical ideas suitable for babies, children aged 2 years, and children aged 3 to 5 years. There is also advice on using observations to help with assessment, and for planning the next steps in children's learning.