In Innovations in E-Government, Erwin A. Blackstone, Michael L. Bognanno, and Simon Hakim make the case that E-government is expected to make middle management of lesser value and flatten the pyramid of management in government. Improved communications, measurability of output, and the greater accountability of workers will reduce the necessary level of worker supervision and reduce the need for middle management. In turn, decisions by top management become more transparent and their accountability will also rise. Thus, as a result of improved technology, government could become leaner. Workers will be more empowered, efficient, and accountable.When considering the long term effects of e-government on the structure and activities of government, increased transparency becomes a most beneficial aspect. When activities are reported, meetings are broadcast and information is easily accessed, citizens become more informed. This will make government more accountable and good governance in one locality will increase the pressure on others to also adopt the same innovations. E-government is a technological innovation and moves from an inefficient and mainly unaccountable bureaucracy to a new entrepreneurial and accountable culture. It enables workers at lower levels of the hierarchy to take part in and be accountable for decision-making. E-government is being used to improve the management of cities and to achieve a more efficient use of resources. In the long run, opportunities exist for e-government to bring about a reorganization of government, one that would reduce excessively bureaucratic processes and organizational structures. It is these changes that may ultimately bring the biggest cost savings to taxpayers.