A sectarian-based insurgency has raged in southern Thailand since January 2004, leaving three thousand dead and thousands more injured. Although southern Thailand has witnessed numerous periods of secessionist conflict, the present insurgency is different in two significant ways: it has radical jihadist overtones, and it has been marked by an unprecedented level of violence. Drawing heavily on original research and meticulous fieldwork, Zachary Abuza brings to the fore several issues that thus far have been ignored. In this eye-opening volume, he examines the roots of the current southern Thai conflict, gives a detailed overview of the present crisis, documents the flight of the south's Buddhist community, and argues that the Thai government has woefully misplayed its hand. Perhaps more sobering, Abuza warns that international jihadist groups may ultimately involve themselves in the conflict and escalate both the intensity and lethality of it, which would have profound implications on the global war on terror. With his careful and persuasive arguments and practical policy recommendations, Abuza draws attention to a poorly understood conflict and alerts readers to the dangers that may lie ahead for Thailand and Southeast Asia.