This text reports on two comparative nationally representative surveys of men and women in Britain and Spain, two countries chosen to illustrate the diversity of modern European societies. The British survey was funded within the Future of Work Research Programme and was carried out by the Office of National Statistics (ONS). Catherine Hakim presents a study of ideal models of the family and family roles, work orientations, patriarchal values and lifestyle preferences, showing how these impact on women's marital histories, fertility, employment patterns and occupational segregation, but not on men's labour market participation. Lifestyle preferences and work orientations have a strong impact on women's activities, and especially on married women's choices, but patriarchal values (which are most commonly studied by social attitude surveys) have virtually no impact on behaviour. The analyses also demonstrate that political and religious values have virtually no connection with orientations to employment and family roles. The book also covers educational homogamy, housing classes, labour mobility and contrasts between ethnic minority groups in core values and labour market participation.