Without the extraordinary efforts of the editors and authors of this book, three of the four lion tamarin species (golden, golden-headed, black-faced, and black) would most likely be extinct. The contributors' hard work set international standards and became the model for the preservation of other endangered species. There is, of course, still much to be done, and this comprehensive assessment of research findings and conservation efforts leads the way. The first section of the book covers the history and framework of research and conservation for the four species, stressing the importance of both group and individual efforts. Part II examines the principal research fields that have played an important role in contributing to the management of the species in captivity and the wild; the authors maintain that there is no substitute for long-term data and good science when developing recovery and conservation programs. Part III focuses on direct interventions to conserve wild populations and their habitats as guided by scientific and educational principles. Kleiman and Rylands close the book by noting the remarkable accomplishments of lion tamarin conservation, and look hopefully toward future directions and challenges.