The evolutionary development of new engine materials and designs has allowed turbines to be operated at much higher temperature and achieve higher efficiencies, thus new materials have been developed to meet these new challenges. There is a growing need to assess the material behavior in these harsh environments so that structural models can be validated and engine components can be monitored during operation. This book demonstrated a ceramic strain sensor and temperature sensor based on reactively sputtered indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films have been developed to monitor the aerospace propulsion systems. Ceramic ITO strain sensors were prepared by reactive sputtering in various nitrogen/oxygen/argon partial pressures. A robust ceramic temperature sensor fabricated by two different ITO elements, each with substantially different charge carrier concentrations, was developed to monitor the temperature of all the static and dynamic engine components employed in propulsion systems that operate at temperatures in excess of 1300Â°C.