This textbook provides an introduction to design for function, using many examples of manufactured artifacts and living organisms to demonstrate common themes and fundamental principles. Examples forcefully illustrate the importance of the basic design principles related to material properties, physical principles, and energy expenditure. The author also discusses the relation of aesthetic and functional design, the crucial connection of design to production in artifacts, and reproduction in organisms. The author has thoroughly updated this second edition with more examples and a new chapter with actual design case studies to illustrate key ideas. In addition, the text contains many new exercises that reinforce important points in the text.