Reorganized to better reflect the order in which mechanical ventilation is typically taught, this text focuses on the management of patients who are receiving mechanical ventilatory support and provides clear discussion of mechanical ventilation and its application. The 4th edition features two-color illustrations, an increased focus on critical thinking, a continued emphasis on ventilator graphics, and several new chapters including non-invasive positive pressure ventilation and long-term ventilation.Excerpts of the most recent CPGs are included to give students important information regarding indications/contraindications, hazards and complications, assessment of need, assessment of outcome, and monitoring.Clinical Rounds boxes contain problems that may be encountered during actual use of equipment and raise questions for the student to answer.Case studies are included as boxes throughout the chapters within boxes and Clinical Rounds. Historical Notes provide educationally or clinically relevant information. Chapters featuring topics such as methods to improve ventilation, frequently used pharmacologic agents in ventilated patients, cardiovascular complications, pulmonary complications, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, and long-term ventilation have been added.Key Point boxes have been placed sporadically throughout the chapters and highlight key information for the reader. Increased number of NBRC-type questions reflecting the types of questions and amount of coverage on the board exams. Respected educator J.M. Cairo has been added as co-author, bringing in a fresh voice and a wide breadth of experience. A reorganization of chapters creates a text that is more in line with the way the course is typically taught. lAll chapters have been heavily revised and updated, particularly the chapters on ventilator graphics, methods to improve oxygenation, and neonatal and pediatric ventilation.A second color has been added to enhance the overall design and line drawings.Key terms are listed at the beginning of each chapter and highlighted at first mention.