This is a Pageburst digital textbook; This groundbreaking reference - created by an internationally respected team of clinical and research experts - provides quick access to concise summaries of the body of nursing research for 192 common medical-surgical interventions. Each nursing care guideline classifies specific nursing activities as Effective, Possibly Effective, or Possibly Harmful, providing a bridge between research and clinical practice. Ideal for both nursing students and practicing nurses, this evidence-based reference is your key to confidently evaluating the latest research findings and effectively applying best practices in the clinical setting. Synthesizing the current state of research evidence, each nursing care guideline classifies specific activities as Effective, Possibly Effective, Not Effective, or Possibly Harmful.Easy-to-recognize icons for each cited study help you differentiate between findings that are based on nursing research (NR), multidisciplinary research (MR), or expert opinion (EO), or those activities that represent established standards of practice (SP). Each nursing activity is rated by level of evidence, allowing you to gauge the validity of the research and weigh additional evidence you may encounter. Guidelines are identified by NIC intervention labels wherever appropriate, and NOC outcome measurements are incorporated throughout. An Evolve website provides additional evidence-based nursing resources.