American Courts describes the state judicial systems and the federal judicial system. It then sketches in simple, understandable terms many of the complications stemming from the coexistence of multiple court systems applying various bodies of law—circumstances unique to American federalism. Describes judicial personnel, with special attention to judges and the concept of an independent judiciary. Likewise, the role of lawyers is described, underscoring the significance of an independent bar. The author is the James Monroe Professor of Law at the University of Virginia where he teaches Civil Procedure and Federal Courts and directs the Law School's Graduate Program for judges.