What makes mathematics so confusing to students? To succeed in the study of arithmetic, geometry, or algebra, students must learn what is effectively a second language of mathematical terms and symbols. In Literacy Strategies for Improving Mathematics Instruction, Joan M. Kenney and her coauthors describe common ways in which students misinterpret the language of mathematics, and show teachers what they can do to ensure that their students become fluent in that language. The authors synthesize the research on what it takes to decode mathematical text, explain how teachers can use guided discourse and graphic representation to help students develop mathematical literacy skills, offer guidance on using action research to enhance mathematics instruction, and discuss the importance of student-centered learning and concept-building skills in the classroom. Real-life vignettes of student struggles illuminate the profound effect of literacy problems on student achievement in mathematics. This book will help teachers better understand their students’ difficulties with mathematics and take the steps necessary to alleviate them. Abundantly researched and filled with helpful strategies and resources, it is an invaluable resource for mathematics teachers at all levels. Joan M. Kenney has been both a research scientist and a mathematics teacher at the secondary and college levels. Most recently, she served as codirector of the Balanced Assessment Program at the Harvard University Graduate School of Education.