This work brings into print for the first time the "Tractatus expendens propositiones damnatas ab Alexandro VII". It was written between 1670 and 1675 by the famous Spanish polymath Juan Caramuel Lobkowitz (1606-1682), one of the most eminent probabilist theologians of that time. This work illustrates Caramuel's moral-theological output, highlights the structure and the most important arguments of the Tractatus, and focuses on the condemned propositions attributed to Caramuel. Caramuel's text goes to the core of the moral controversy that agitated the second half of the seventeenth century, shows how probabilism tried to metabolize the papal condemnation of 1665-1666 'from the inside' (as it were), and attempts to protect the system - against any rigorist and Jansenist assault - from the accuse of being intrinsically laxist. This critical-genetic edition, tailored with specific, innovative philological criteria, permits to follow in greater detail the (chrono)logical development of the text's composition; furthermore, the first chapter of the accompanying Introduction is a case-study (the first of the genre) of Caramuel's creative process and way of writing.