With an emphasis on looking at data before jumping into a test, author David C. Howell's practical approach focuses on the context of statistics in behavioral research. This approach promotes an understanding of the logic behind the statistics: why and how certain methods are used, rather than just doing techniques by rote. Howell takes students beyond crunching numbers to discover the meaning of statistical results and how they relate to the research questions being asked. Howell uses real data and research studies as a basis and moves through an analysis of data. As "Fundamental Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences", Fourth Edition, clearly demonstrates, it is not only important to concentrate on whether there is a difference between two groups but also to understand what the difference means.This book emphasizes the logic of statistics and data analysis, and its application to real studies through a concrete and intuitive approach. Understanding statistical concepts and making sense of data is facilitated by use of the computer to help the reader understand and conduct research. The mathematics of statistics is de-emphasized.