As stated by Buckminster Fuller in Operation Manual for Spaceship Earth, "Synergy is the behavior of whole systems unpredicted by separately observed behaviors of any of the system's separate parts". In a similar vein, one might define an intellectual synergy as "an improvement in our understanding of the behavior of a system unpredicted by separately acquired viewpoints of the activities of such a system". Such considerations underlie, and provide a motivation for, an interdisciplinary approach to the problem of unraveling the deeper mysteries of cellular metabolism and organization, and have led a number of pioneering spirits, many represen ted in the pages which follow, to consider biological systems from an elec trochemical standpoint. is itself, of course, an interdisciplinary branch of Now electrochemistry science, and there is no doubt that many were introduced to it via Bockris and Reddy's outstanding, wide-ranging and celebrated textbook Modern Electrochemistry. If I am to stick my neck out, and seek to define bioelec trochemistry, I would take it to refer to "the study of the mutual interac tions of electrical fields and biological materials, including living systems".