Book Description: Microbial ecology is the relationship of microorganisms with one another and with their environment. It concerns the three major domains of life -- Eukaryota, Archaea, and Bacteria -- as well as viruses. Microorganisms, by their omnipresence, impact the entire biosphere. They are present in virtually all of our planet's environments, including some of the most extreme, from acidic lakes to the deepest ocean, and from frozen environments to hydrothermal vents. Microbes, especially bacteria, often engage in symbiotic relationships (either positive or negative) with other organisms, and these relationships affect the ecosystem. One example of these fundamental symbioses are chloroplasts, which allow eukaryotes to conduct photosynthesis. Chloroplasts are considered to be endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, a group of bacteria that are thought to be the origins of aerobic photosynthesis. Some theories state that this invention coincides with a major shift in the early earth's atmosphere, from a reducing atmosphere to an oxygen-rich atmosphere. This book presents new and important research in the field.