The degradation of aquatic systems through human activities has led to large efforts throughout the world to restore aquatic habitats for economic, cultural and environmental reasons. Nowhere is this more evident than in temperate streams, rivers and estuaries, where huge investments have been made to improve and restore habitats for plant and animal wildlife, particularly fish populations.This book provides a comprehensive, practical resource for developing monitoring and evaluation programmes for freshwater habitat restoration at various scales. Its unique emphasis is on how to monitor effects at habitat unit (site), reach and watershed scales. Numerous examples are given, particularly of restoration activities for coolwater biota and salmonid fishes. However, the principles discussed are relevant worldwide.