The book integrates population biology theory and practice with management of fragmented ecosystems. This has rarely been successfully performed so far, as theory is usually conspicuous by being unconnected with management. Most management guidelines, therefore, tend to be extremely general and based on biogeography rather than population dynamics. Reviews on the current state of the art in connection with fragmentation research (population biology and genetics) are presented. The focus is put on the most important results of a large German project, which emphasises the application of metapopulation and minimum viable population theory in Central European cultural landscapes. This is supplemented by case studies from Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand. The book is aimed at scientists in ecology and nature conservation as well as graduate students and people working in conservation practice.