Book Description: This book is a self-contained monograph on spectral theory for non-compact Riemann surfaces, focused on the infinite-volume case. By focusing on the scattering theory of hyperbolic surfaces, this work provides a compelling introductory example which will be accessible to a broad audience. The book opens with an introduction to the geometry of hyperbolic surfaces. Then a thorough development of the spectral theory of a geometrically finite hyperbolic surface of infinite volume is given. The final sections include recent developments for which no thorough account exists.