Biosensors have captured the imagination of the world's scientific and commercial communities by combining interdisciplinary skills of biologists, physicists, chemists and engineers to provide innovative solutions to analytical problems. Biosensors are applicable to clinical diagnostics, food analysis, cell culture monitoring, environmental control and various military situations. Ever increasing demands for rapid and convenient analyses of a wide variety of materials in diverse locations has led to intense interest in the fusion of biology and electronics which mimics our principal concern: the effect of materials and environments on living systems. This series, "Advances in Biosensors", presents a compendium of research papers, in which authorities in the field of biosensors provide an up-to-date overview of their laboratory's contribution, summarizing the primary research as it has appeared, possibly scattered, in the journal and conference literature, and reflecting on their findings. The net result will be intense, yet highly readable accounts of the state of the art at this leading edge of analytical technology.